An estimated 35 million people are living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. New HIV infections are declining globally, with nearly three-fourths of the 2.3 million new HIV infections worldwide occurring in sub-Saharan African countries.
Adequate nutrition is more than 70% of the measures one need to take to stay healthy, prevent disease or speed up recovery from illness.
Nutrition intervention is crucial in the management of HIV/AIDS because good nutrition will help improve immune function, response to treatment, quality of life of the infected person so that they will be able to live a productive life.
The most common and often disturbing symptoms of HIV, reported in 95%-100% of all patient with advanced disease, is loss of muscle tissue and body fat, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, reduced immune function and competence, increased susceptibility to secondary infections, increased nutritional needs because of reduced food intake and increased loss of nutrient leading to rapid HIV progression.
OBJECTIVE OF NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT FOR HIV/AIDS- Improve nutritional status by maintaining weight, preventing loss of muscle mass and weight loss.
-Ensure adequate nutrient intake by improving eating habits, and building stores of essential nutrients including carbohydrates, proteins, important antioxidant nutrient and other vitamins and minerals necessary for the functioning of the immune system.
-Preventing food borne illness by prompting food safety and hygiene.
-To protect the body against opportunist infection, thereby reducing the cost and time in medical care and also extending the period between HIV and the development of AIDS.
NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS IN HIV/AIDS-Soremouth and throat
-Nausea and Vomiting
DIETARY MANAGEMENTThe consumption of a good mixed diet that comprises of adequate amounts of all basic food nutrient from the five basic food group is recommended.
Cereal, Grains and Product : 8-12 ServingsFood Sources: yam, rice, potatoes, maize, wheat etc
Pulses, Legumes : 3-4 ServingsFood Sources: beans, cow peas, groundnuts, nuts etc
Milk And Meat Products: 3-4 ServingsFood Sources: Yoghurt, cheese, fish,egg,chicken, pork,beef, crayfish etc
Fruits and Vegetables : 4-5 ServingsFood Sources: spinach, yellow and orange fruit e.g pawpaw and mango as well as orange, yellow and colored vegetables such as carrot, red pepper and tomatoes, bananas, avocado etc
Fats And Sugars: 2 servingsFood Sources: butter, groundnutoil, groundnuts.
Where dietary modification is necessary an individualized menu plan is carried out based on the recommended dietary allowance for health and disease state.